Common Information Security Principles

Confidentiality: Ensures that information is protected from unauthorized access. This guarantees that only authorized individuals or systems can access specific information.

  • Encryption Tools: OpenSSL, BitLocker, VeraCrypt
  • Access Control Lists (ACLs): Windows ACL, POSIX ACL
  • Data Masking and Tokenization: Informatica Data Masking, IBM Guardium
  • Data Loss Prevention (DLP) Tools: Symantec DLP, McAfee Total Protection for DLP

Integrity: Ensures the accuracy and completeness of information. Protects data from unauthorized changes and ensures its reliability.

  • Hashing Algorithms and Tools: SHA-256, MD5, HashCalc
  • Digital Signatures: PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), GnuPG
  • Change Management Software: Git, Subversion (SVN)
  • File Integrity Monitoring (FIM): Tripwire, OSSEC

Availability: Ensures that authorized users can access information when needed. Aims for uninterrupted access to information and reliable system operations.

  • Backup and Recovery Tools: Veeam, Acronis Backup
  • Load Balancing: HAProxy, NGINX
  • Disaster Recovery Planning Tools: DRaaS (Disaster Recovery as a Service), VMware Site Recovery Manager
  • Continuous Monitoring and Uptime Tools: Nagios, Zabbix

Authentication: Ensures the verification of the identities of users or systems. Ensures that only authorized individuals or devices can access the system.

  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) Tools: Google Authenticator, Duo Security
  • Single Sign-On (SSO) Solutions: Okta, Microsoft Azure AD
  • Biometric Authentication Systems: Fingerprint scanners, Face recognition software

Authorization: Manages the access rights of authenticated users or systems to specific resources and operations. Ensures that each user can access only the information they are authorized to access.

  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) Systems: Microsoft Active Directory, AWS IAM
  • Policy-Based Access Control (PBAC): Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) tools, Open Policy Agent (OPA)
  • Access Management Solutions: IBM Security Identity Governance and Intelligence, SailPoint IdentityIQ

Accountability: Ensures that all actions related to system and information access are recorded and auditable. Enables tracking of the source of any breach or incident.

  • Logging and Monitoring Tools: Splunk, ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana)
  • Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) Systems: ArcSight, IBM QRadar
  • Activity Monitoring Software: SpectorSoft, Veriato

Risk Management: Involves the identification, assessment, and appropriate management of information security risks. Includes applying necessary controls and measures to minimize risks.

  • Risk Assessment Software: RiskWatch, RSA Archer
  • Vulnerability Scanning Tools: Nessus, QualysGuard
  • Threat Modeling Tools: Microsoft Threat Modeling Tool, OWASP Threat Dragon
  • Risk Management Frameworks and Software: ISO/IEC 27005, FAIR (Factor Analysis of Information Risk)

Continuous Improvement: Involves the ongoing review and enhancement of the information security management system. Ensures systems are updated against new threats and vulnerabilities.

  • Audit and Compliance Software: Netwrix Auditor, AuditBoard
  • Review and Assessment Tools: NIST CSF Assessment Tool, COBIT
  • Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) Software: ISO/IEC 27001 ISMS,

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