We map a web application process together with the example of the MERN stack project. MERN stack provides a comprehensive and efficient solution for building modern web applications, with MongoDB for data storage, Express.js and Node.js for server-side logic, and React for building dynamic and interactive user interfaces on the client side.

CentOS Setup:

  • Install CentOS on your server and set up basic configurations.
  • Configure firewall settings.
  • Set up user accounts and permissions.

Docker and Kubernetes Setup:

  • Install Docker on your CentOS server for containerization.
  • Optionally, set up a Kubernetes cluster for orchestration and scalability.
  • Use tools like Docker Compose for managing multi-container Docker applications.

GitLab CI/CD Setup:

  • Install and configure GitLab on your server.
  • Set up a GitLab CI/CD pipeline for continuous integration and deployment.

Node.js Setup:

  • Install Node.js on your server to run JavaScript on the backend.
  • Set up npm (Node Package Manager) for managing dependencies.

React/React Native Setup:

  • Install React or React Native for frontend development.
  • Create a new React/React Native project using create-react-app or Expo CLI.

MongoDB Setup:

  • Install MongoDB on your server for data storage.
  • Configure MongoDB settings and create necessary databases and collections.

Nginx Setup:

  • Install Nginx as a reverse proxy server for routing and load balancing.
  • Configure Nginx to handle frontend and backend traffic.

Other Required Tools:

  • Install and configure any additional tools like PM2 for Node.js process management, ESLint for code linting, and Prettier for code formatting.

Backend Development (Express.js and Node.js):

  • Set up an Express.js application for backend development.
  • Define routes, controllers, and middleware.
  • Connect Express.js with MongoDB for database operations.

Frontend Development (React/React Native):

  • Develop React or React Native components for the user interface.
  • Implement state management using tools like Redux (for React) or React Context API.


  • Implement unit tests and integration tests for both backend and frontend.
  • Use testing libraries/frameworks like Jest, Mocha, or Jasmine.

Domain Registration:

  • Choose a domain registrar and register your desired domain name.
  • Configure domain name system (DNS) settings to point to your server’s IP address.

SSL/TLS Certificate Setup:

  • Obtain an SSL/TLS certificate for securing communication between clients and your server.
  • Consider using Let’s Encrypt for a free and automated certificate issuance.
  • Configure Nginx or your reverse proxy to use the SSL certificate for secure connections.

Integration with the MERN Stack:

  • Update your frontend and backend configurations to use the secure HTTPS protocol.
  • Ensure that API calls and static file requests are made over HTTPS.
  • Adjust Nginx or your reverse proxy settings to enforce HTTPS redirection.

Domain-Driven Configuration:

  • Update the application configuration files to use the registered domain for API endpoints and static file hosting.
  • Modify CORS (Cross-Origin Resource Sharing) settings if applicable.

Load Balancing and CDN Integration:

  • Integrate with a Content Delivery Network (CDN) for improved content delivery and caching.
  • Set up load balancing strategies if your application is deployed across multiple servers.

Migration to Production in Different Locations:

  • Utilize Docker Swarm or Kubernetes to deploy your application across multiple hosts in different locations.
  • Set up a Content Delivery Network (CDN) for serving static assets to users globally.
  • Implement database sharding or clustering strategies for distributed MongoDB deployments.

Continuous Integration and Deployment:

  • Integrate your project with GitLab CI/CD.
  • Set up jobs for automated testing, building, and deployment.

Continuous Deployment with Domain Changes:

  • Adjust GitLab CI/CD pipeline configurations to include domain-related changes.
  • Automate deployment processes to ensure smooth updates without downtime.

Backup and Recovery Tools:

  • Implement tools like Duplicity or Bacula for Docker host backup.
  • Use MongoDB’s built-in tools for backup, such as mongodump for full backups and mongorestore for recovery.
  • Consider using MongoDB tools for incremental backups. The mongodump with --oplog flag captures the oplog, enabling point-in-time recovery.


  • Set up redundant Docker hosts and use orchestration tools like Kubernetes to ensure high availability and failover.
  • Implement MongoDB replica sets for database redundancy and fault tolerance.

Monitoring and Logging:

  • Implement monitoring tools like Prometheus for tracking application performance.
  • Set up logging using tools like ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana).

Scaling and Optimization:

  • Optimize and scale your application as needed based on usage patterns.
  • Consider horizontal scaling with Kubernetes for better resource utilization.


  • Implement security best practices for Docker, Kubernetes, and MongoDB.
  • Utilize TLS/SSL for secure communication between components.

Disaster Recovery:

  • Develop and regularly test a disaster recovery plan.
  • Ensure that backups are stored in separate geographical locations for resilience.

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